You can count words in Java String by using the split() method of String. A word is nothing but a non-space character in String, which is separated by one or multiple spaces. By using regular expression to find spaces and split on them will give you an array of all words in given String, but if you have been asked to write a program to count a number of words in given String in Java without using any of String utility methods like String.split() or StringTokenizer then it's a little bit challenging for a beginner programmer. It's actually one of the common Java coding questions and I have seen it a couple of times with Java developer interviews of 2 to 4 years of experience.
Wednesday, 26 July 2017
Tuesday, 25 July 2017
The Oracle Application Container Cloud (ACCS)'s Application Cache provides (as the name implies) caching for applications! you simply specify the amount of memory you want to cache and whether you just need basic non-HA cache for dev/test or reliable caching for production and the appropriate infrastructure is automatically provisioned.
Monday, 24 July 2017
This error comes when you try to store an out-of-range floating point value into a numeric variable. For example, if your NUMERIC or DECIMAL variable is defined as NUMERIC(5,2) than the maximum value it can hold is 999.99, if you try to store something like 1000.00 then it will throw "Arithmetic overflow error converting numeric to data type numeric". One of the common reason of this error is the ignorance and misunderstanding of the NUMERIC data type. For example, many SQL Server DBAs and developers think that a NUMERIC(5,2) variable can hold a 7 digit floating point number where 5 digit is before decimal and 2 digits are after the decimal. This is wrong. A NUMERIC(5,2) means, the total number of digits in the value cannot exceed 5 and decimal precision is 2 digits i.e. the maximum possible value is 999.99.
Saturday, 22 July 2017
Friday, 21 July 2017
Stack and Queue are two of important data structures in the programming world and have a variety of usage. As opposed to the array and linked list, which are considered as a primary data structure, they are a secondary data structure which can build using an array or linked list. You can use Stack to solve recursive problems and Queue can be used for ordered processing. The difference between Stack and Queue Data structure is also one of the common questions not only in Java interviews but also on C, C++, and other programming job interviews. Well, main difference comes the way these data structures are used, Stack is LIFO (last In First Out) data structure, which means the item which is inserted last is retrieved first, similar to a stack of plates in a dinner party, where every guest pick up the plate from the top of stack.
Thursday, 20 July 2017
No, you cannot make an abstract class or method final in Java because abstract and final are the mutual exclusive concept. An abstract class is incomplete and can only be instantiated by extending a concrete class and implementing all abstract methods, while a final class is considered as complete and cannot be extended further. This means when you make an abstract class final, it cannot be extended hence it cannot be used and that's why Java compiler throws a compile time error when you try to make an abstract class final in Java. In short, an abstract class cannot be final in Java, using both abstract and final modifier with a class is illegal in Java.
Wednesday, 19 July 2017
Can you write a method in Java which accepts a String argument and returns a number of words in it? A word is a sequence of one or more non-space character i.e. any character other than '' (empty String). This should be your method signature:
public int count(String word);
public int count(String word);
Monday, 17 July 2017
Most Java Web applications use standard Java interfaces when interacting with other systems. HTTP-based services like Web-pages or REST servers are implemented using the interface javax.servlet.Servlet. Database interaction is implemented using the JDBC interfaces java.sql.Statement and java.sql.Connection. These standards are almost universally in use, independent of the underlying framework (Spring or Java EE) and the Servlet container (Tomcat, Wildfly, etc.).
Saturday, 15 July 2017
In the programming world, there are two main ways to improve the throughput of a program, by using multi-threading and by using multitasking. Both take advantage of parallelism to efficiently utilize immense power of CPU and improve the throughput of your program. Actually, multi-threading is nothing but a thread based multi-tasking. Since the difference between multi-threading and multi-tasking is an important freshers programming interview question and also often ask in viva or oral exams on computer science graduation courses, I thought to jot down a couple of important points together. This article is the result of those points and can be handy when you quickly wants to know the key difference between multi-threading and multi-tasking in concurrent programming.
Friday, 14 July 2017
One of the common question from programming interviews is, what is the difference between a Thread and a Process? Well, the main difference between them is that a Process is a program which is executing some code and a thread is an independent path of execution in the process. A process can have more than one thread for doing independent task e.g. a thread for reading data from disk, a thread for processing that data and another thread for sending that data over the network. This technique to improve throughput and better utilize CPU power is also known as multi-threading. Technically, most significant difference between thread is address space and context switching. All thread from a process share same address space but a process has their own address space. Similarly, context switching between process is more expensive than context switching between threads.
Thursday, 13 July 2017
In one word, we use Threads to make Java application faster by doing multiple things at same time. In technical terms, Thread helps you to achieve parallelism in Java program. Since CPU is very fast and nowadays it even contains multiple cores, just one thread is not able to take advantage of all the cores, which means your costly hardware will remain idle for most of the time. By using multiple threads, you can take full advantage of multiple cores by serving more clients and serving them faster. Since, in today's fast-paced world, response time matters a lot and that's why you have multi-core CPUs, but if your application doesn't make full use of all resources then there is no point adding them, multi-threading is one way to exploiting huge computing power of CPU in Java application.
Wednesday, 12 July 2017
Though both Inheritance and Composition provides code reusablility, main difference between Composition and Inheritance in Java is that Composition allows reuse of code without extending it but for Inheritance you must extend the class for any reuse of code or functionality. Another difference which comes from this fact is that by using Composition you can reuse code for even final class which is not extensible but Inheritance cannot reuse code in such cases. Also by using Composition you can reuse code from many classes as they are declared as just a member variable, but with Inheritance you can reuse code form just one class because in Java you can only extend one class, because multiple Inheritance is not supported in Java. You can do this in C++ though because there one class can extend more than one class. BTW, You should always prefer Composition over Inheritance in Java, its not just me but even Joshua Bloch has suggested in his book Effective Java, which is a great resource to learn how to do things in right way in Java.
Tuesday, 11 July 2017
Arquillian is a powerful and flexible testing framework that allows you to test your applications or frameworks with your target application server. The tests that you write can run standalone (client mode) or inside the container (in-container mode). This capability allows you to run your tests in an environment that is closer to your production than is possible using unit tests and mocks alone.
Monday, 10 July 2017
JSON array is an ordered collection of values, which are enclosed within brackets e.g.  and separated by a comma. In this Java tutorial, we will convert JSON Array to String array in Java and subsequently create JSON from Java String Array, here we will convert JSON array to String array or List in Java. As I said earlier, there are lot's of open source library out there which can help to parse JSON data format and we have already seen Jackson library in our last example. In this tutorial, we will use GSON to parse JSON data format and create Java String array or List from JSON array representation. Given the popularity of JSON as a lightweight alternative to XML to transfer data from Server to client in web applications, it's becoming imperative to know about JSON data format and parsing JSON string, much like parsing XML documents and knowing about different XML parsers e.g. DOM or SAX.
Saturday, 8 July 2017
Both Abstraction and Encapsulation are two of the four basic OOP concepts which allow you to model real-world things into objects so that you can implement them in your program and code. Many beginners get confused between Abstraction and Encapsulation because they both look very similar. If you ask someone what is Abstraction, he will tell that it's an OOP concept which focuses on relevant information by hiding unnecessary detail, and when you ask about Encapsulation, many will tell that it's another OOP concept which hides data from outside world. The definitions are not wrong as both Abstraction and Encapsulation does hide something, but the key difference is on intent.
Friday, 7 July 2017
First thing Java programmers learns is that they need a main method to run, but when they go to any Interview or college viva and asked can you run a Java program without a main method, they surprised like hell. Well, there are actually different types of execution model available in Java, for example, Applets which run on browser doesn't have main method, instead they have life-cycle methods like init(), start() and stop(), which controls their execution. Since Applet is a Java program, you can answer this question in Yes. Similarly, we have Servlet, which runs in a Servlet container, comes as bundled in a web server like Tomcat, or Jetty. Servlet also works on callback mechanism, it has methods like init(), service() and destroy(). Container calls init() if Servlet is first time loaded into memory, calls service() if there is a request to process and calls destroy() before removing it from memory.
Thursday, 6 July 2017
There are a lot of examples of Sorting ArrayList in Java on the internet, but most of them use either String or Integer objects to explain sorting, which is not enough, because in real world you may have to sort a list of custom objects e.g. your domain or business objects like Employee, Book, Order, Trade etc. In order to sort an ArrayList of objects, you need two things, first a class to provider ordering and a method to provide sorting. If you know about ordering and sorting in Java then you know that Comparable and Comparator class is used to provide the ordering for objects. The Comparable interface provides natural order e.g. lexicographic order of String or name for Employees, while Comparator is used to provide custom order. It gives you the flexibility to sort your objects on the parameter you want e.g. you can sort a list of Coupon objects on the percentage discount, expiry dates, or based upon the total cost.
Wednesday, 5 July 2017
There are multiple ways to check if an ArrayList is empty in JSP or not. For example, you can use the empty operator and the length function of JSTL to check if a list is empty or not. You can also use scriptlet, which allows you to insert Java code into JSP but that is not advisable because it makes it harder to maintain a JSP page. You can also write custom tag but that is not required because JSTL provides you necessary support. In this article, I'll show you two ways to check if a given list or ArrayList is empty or not in JSP page without using the scriptlet. You guessed it right, we will use JSTL, the Java standard tag library to solve this problem.
Tuesday, 4 July 2017
If you are working in real world application then you may frequently face scenarios where you have to compare data e.g. you get two lists of values and you want to know which values are common between two lists, which values only exists in the first list and which values only exists in the second list. If the list contains just 5 to 10 values you can do it easily with your eyes but what is fun if a programmer doing the task manually. You should be able to leverage all the tools available to you to do this comparison reliably. One of such ubiquitous and omnipresent tool is Microsoft Excel which is much more powerful then you can think of. It's like your brain, most of us just use 5% of Excel and a good knowledge of Excel's little bit advanced functionality e.g. VLOOKUP can be very helpful while comparing the list of values and reconciling data between different worksheet.
Monday, 3 July 2017
While working or JSON parsing in Java application it’s quite common to just copy paste a JSON String from some resources e.g. a RESTful web service and then use the Jackson library to parse the JSON. This is the quickest way to test and learn parsing JSON string in Java, but the main problem with this approach is that the JSON String also includes double quotes “” which is also used for enclosing String literals in Java. Since JSON String itself contains double quotes, when you just copy paste them in your IDE or Java source file, the didn’t work as expected. If you remember, if your String contains double quotes then those need to be escaped when you are pasting them as String literals in your Java code.
Sunday, 2 July 2017
Today's coding problem is not very new, it's age old classic from programming interviews. You have a sorted array containing n - 1 unique numbers starting from 0 to n - 1. There is only one number missing in this range and you need to find that out. I mean you need to write a Java method to find the missing number and print it's value in the console. Some of you might have seen this question before, but if you have not been asked this question before, what is the first approach comes into your mind to solve this question?